Skip to main content


References used in the Stormwater Heatmap methodology.

Anan, Y; Kunito T, T Ikemoto, R Kubota, I Watanabe, S Tanabe, N Miyazaki, and E Petrov. 2002. “Elevated concentrations of trace elements in Caspian seals (Phoca caspia) found stranded during the mass mortality event in 2000.” Environmental Contamination & Toxicology 42: 354–62.

Anderson, B, J Hunt, B Phillips, B Thompson, S Lowe, i K Tabersk, and R Carr. 2007. “Patterns and trends in sediment toxicity in the San Francisco Estuary.” Environmental Research 105: 145–55.

Arkoosh, M, E Clemons, P Huffman, A Kagley, E Casillas, N Adams, H Sanborn, T Collier, and J Stein. 2001. “Increased Susceptibility of Juvenile Chinook Salmon to Vibriosis after Exposure to Chlorinated and Aromatic Compounds Found in Contaminated Urban Estuaries.” Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 13 (3): 257–68.

Baldwin, D, C Tatara, and N Scholz. 2011. “Copper induced olfactory toxicity in salmon and steelhead: Extrapolation across species and rearing environments.” Aquatic Toxicology. 101 (1): 295–97.

Booth, Derek B, James R Karr, Sally Schauman, Christopher P Konrad, Sarah A Morley, Marit G Larson, and Stephen J Burges. 2004. “Reviving urban streams: Land use, hydrology, biology, and human behavior 1.” JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association 40 (5): 1351–64.

Department of Ecology. 2014. “Stormwater Management Manual for Western Washington,” 1192.

Dinicola, Richard S. 1990. “Characterization and simulation of rainfall-runoff relations for headwater basins in western King and Snohomish Counties, Washington.” Water-Resources Investigations Report 89-4052: 52 p.

Feist, Blake E., Eric R. Buhle, David H. Baldwin, Julann A. Spromberg, Steven E. Damm, Jay W. Davis, and Nathaniel L. Scholz. 2017. “Roads to ruin: Conservation threats to a sentinel species across an urban gradient.” Ecological Applications 27 (8): 2382–96.

Gaw, S, K Thomas, and T Hutchinson. 2014. “Sources, impacts and trends of pharmaceuticals in the marine and coastal environment.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 369: 20130572.

Hadfield, Jarrod D, and Others. 2010. “MCMC methods for multi-response generalized linear mixed models: the MCMCglmm R package.” Journal of Statistical Software 33 (2): 1–22.

Helsel, Denise R. 2012. Statistics for Censored Environmental Data.

Incardona, J, T Linbo, and N Scholz. 2011. “Cardiac toxicity of 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is differentially dependent on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 isoform during zebrafish development.” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 257 (2): 242–49.

Jarvis, T., and G. Bielmyer-Fraser. 2015. “Accumulation and effects of metal mixtures in two seaweed species.” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part C. Toxicology and Pharmacology 171: 28–33.

Kayhanian, M, B Fructman, J Gulliver, C Montanaro, E Ranieri, and S Wuertz. 2012. “Review of highway runoff characteristics: Comparative analysis and universal implications.” Water Research. Vol. 46, pp.” Water Research, 6609–24.

King County. 2014. “Development of a Stormwater Retrofit Plan for Water Resources Inventory Area (WRIA) 9: Comprehensive Needs and Cost Assessment and Extrapolation to Puget Sound.” Prepared by Simmonds J; Wright O, King County Department of Natural Resource; Parks, Water; Land Resources Division.

Lampert, David. 2019. “PyHSPF.”

Levin, P, E Howe, and J Robertson. n.d. “Impacts of stormwater on coastal ecosystems: the need to match the scales of management objectives and solutions.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.

Lyngby, J, and H Brix. 1984. “Seasonal and environmental variation in cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in the Limfjord, Denmark.” Aquatic Botany 54: 100–106.

Mauger, G. S., J. S. Won, K. Hegewisch, C. Lynch, R. Lorente Plazas, Salathe, and E. P. Salathé Jr. 2018. “New Projections of Changing Heavy Precipitation in King County.”

McIntyre, J, J Davis, C Hinman, K Macneale, B Anulacion, N Scholz, and J Stark. 2015. “Soil bioretention protects juvenile salmon and their prey from the toxic impacts of urban stormwater runoff.” Chemosphere 132: 213–19.

Meador, J, F Sommers, and SC Ylitalo. 2006. “Altered growth and related physiological responses in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).” Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 63: 2364–76.

Moore, Richard B, Lucinda D McKay, Alan H Rea, Timothy R Bondelid, Curtis V Price, Thomas G Dewald, and Craig M Johnston. 2019. “User’s guide for the national hydrography dataset plus (NHDPlus) high resolution.” US Geological Survey.

NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). 2019. “NLDAS-2: North American Land Data Assimilation System Forcing Fields.”

Palmer, Margaret, and Albert Ruhi. 2019. “Linkages between flow regime, biota, and ecosystem processes: Implications for river restoration.” Science 365 (6459): eaaw2087.

Rice, C, M Myers, M Willis, B French, and E Casillas. 2000. “From sediment bioassay to fish biomarker – connecting the dots using simple trophic relationships.” Marine Environmental Research 50: 527–22.

Ross, C.W., L. Prihodko, J.Y. Anchang, S.S. Kumar, W. Ji, N. P. Hanan. 2018. “Global Hydrologic Soil Groups (HYSOGs250m) for Curve Number-Based Runoff Modeling.”

Ross, P, Ellis G, M Ikonomou, L Barrett-Lennard, and R Addison. 2000. “High PCB concentrations in freeranging Pacific killer whales, Orcinus orca: Effects of age, sex and dietary preference.” Marine Pollution Bulletin 40 (6): 504–15.

Scholz, N, M Myers, S McCarthy, J Labenia, and J McIntyre. 2011. “Recurrent Die-Offs of Adult Coho Salmon Returning to Spawn in Puget Sound Lowland Urban Streams.” PLoS ONE 6 (12): e28013.

Soil Survey Staff. 2016. “National Value Added Look Up (valu) Table Database for the Gridded Soil Survey Geographic (gSSURGO) Database for the United States of America and the Territories, Commonwealths, and Island Nations served by the USDA-NRCS.”

———. 2018. “Gridded Soil Survey Geographic (gSSURGO) Database for Washington.”

United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2019. “National rivers and streams assessment 2008-2019: A collaborative survey.” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Walsh, Christopher J., Allison H. Roy, Jack W. Feminella, Peter D. Cottingham, Peter M. Groffman, and Raymond P. Morgan. 2005. “The urban stream syndrome: Current knowledge and the search for a cure.” Journal of the North American Benthological Society 24 (3): 706–23.

Washington State Department of Ecology. 2011. “Toxics in Surface Runoff to Puget Sound: Phase 3 Data and Load Estimates.” Prepared by Herrerra Environmental COnsultants, Inc.: Washington Department of Ecology.

Washington State Department of Ecology and Washington Department of Health. 2012. “PAH Chemical Action Plan.” Prepared Davies H, Stone A, Grice J, Patora K, Kadlex M, Delistraty D, Norton D,; White J.: Washington Department of Ecology; Washington Department of Health.

WDFW. 2011. “Toxic Contaminants in Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) Pups from Puget Sound.” Prepared by Noell M, Ross P, Jeffries S, Lance M: Washington Department of Fish; Wildlife.

William Hobbs, Brandi Lubliner, Nataniel Kale, and Evan Newell. 2015. “Western Washington NPDES Phase I Stormwater Permit Final S8 . D Data Characterization.” 15.

Yang, Limin, Suming Jin, Patrick Danielson, Collin Homer, Leila Gass, Stacie M Bender, Adam Case, et al. 2018. “A new generation of the United States National Land Cover Database: Requirements, research priorities, design, and implementation strategies.” ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 146: 108–23.

Zuur AF, Ieno EN, Walker NJ, Saveliev AA, Smith GM. 2009. Mixed Effects Models and Extensions in Ecology with R. New York (NY): Springer